strip off
To remove anything by stripping, e.g. items of clothing or paint from the side of a ship.
To remove all of one's clothes (or sometimes to remove all except underclothes, or figuratively).
To be removed by stripping
strip down
To remove all of one's clothing.
To remove inessentials from.
strip away
To ignore a factor which obscures the reality.
To remove something bit by bit.